# Monday, 15 August 2005
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Revenge of the Non-Public Base Class

I think I've previously written about the stupidity of allowing public classes to extend non-public classes and implement non-public interfaces, but unfortunately in Java we have to live with this.

Last week rnaylor filed a bug that ikvmc created invalid code when calling public methods inherited from a non-public base class from another class (in another package).

A good example that is (sort of) equivalent to the problem in the bug report are the fields in the java.util.zip.ZipConstants interface. I'd link to the Javadoc for this interface, but it is a private type so there is no public documentation. However, this type still leaves it's marks on the public API, because several of the zip classes implement this interface. For example, ZipFile implements this interface and as a consequence it inherits a whole bunch of constants (i.e. public static final fields) that, as far as I can tell, serve no purpose whatsoever in the public API.

Before I checked in my fix yesterday, ikvmc didn't do anything special with these inherited fields or methods and because of this if you referenced these fields or methods from another assembly ikvmc would generate invalid code to access these members on the private base class and the .NET runtime would complain about this (by throwing System.MethodAccessException or System.FieldAccessException).

The fix was quite involved (the diff was about a thousand lines), because stub methods and field accessors need to be added to any public class that extends a non-public class or implements a non-public interface, however these stubs should not be visible to Java reflection, because that could potentially change the semantics of the code (e.g. for things like calculating the serial version UID). Additionally, while most fields should be exposed as properties (that read/write the field in the base class), constant fields need to be copied to retain their "constantness" when accessing them from another language (e.g. so that you can you say case ZipFile.CENATT: in C#). Another non-obvious consequence of these stub methods is that the stack walking code (in the security system and the code that generates the stack traces) needs to filter out these methods, because the system should function as if these methods weren't there.

The lesson here is that you have to be very careful when designing a class library in Java. I believe that the fields that the ZipConstants interface exposes on ZipFile, ZipEntry, etc. were actually an accident that the Sun developers failed to spot before shipping the original JDK. The general advice should be, don't have public classes extend non-public base classes and don't implement non-public interfaces on any of your public classes. Or at least have some tools in place that check for these inherited public members, to make you aware of them before shipping your library.

Finally, this problem doesn't occur in C#, because C# doesn't allow you to create a public class that extends a non-public base class. It does allow implementing non-public interfaces, but since interfaces can't have fields in C# that isn't a problem. An amusing note is that when you call an inherited public method (in a non-public base class) in an assembly that was generated with the broken version of ikvmc, the C# compiler will happily compile the call for you and the generated (invalid) code will again fail at runtime with a System.MethodAccessException.

Monday, 15 August 2005 19:09:27 (W. Europe Daylight Time, UTC+02:00)  #    Comments [3]
Monday, 15 August 2005 21:21:15 (W. Europe Daylight Time, UTC+02:00)
I always thought the ZipConstants thing was a workaround for
the lack of static import back when this was first written.
I.e., it was so that they could write "CENATT" instead of
"ZipConstants.CENATT" in their implementation.
Pretty lame -- the sort of thing we wish wouldn't make it
through quality control.
Tuesday, 16 August 2005 12:51:57 (W. Europe Daylight Time, UTC+02:00)
I'm curious why you feel that extending non-public (but non-final) classes as public classes is a problem, can you look up your previous writing on the subject? I could not find it on your old-blogs page.

Thomas Zander
Tuesday, 20 September 2005 18:20:44 (W. Europe Daylight Time, UTC+02:00)
Thomas, it's a little late, but I found Jeroen's old post about non-public base classes. I remembered it because it was to do with Japitools and because I had commented on it :)

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